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Acknowledgements
Contents:
  1. Conclusion
  2. America's Energy Future: What the Government Misses in Its Energy Outlook and Why It Matters
  3. Annual Energy Outlook 12222
  4. EIA Releases Optimistic Report on U.S. Energy Future | woodcnivaborci.ga

Modest improvements are expected in this sector, mostly from truckers shutting off their engines rather than idling when a truck is not moving. Rail transportation and marine shipping have also put a premium on efficiency, and diesel-electric locomotives and diesel ship engines have improved efficiency over time in both sectors. The major potential for reducing fuel use in freight transport in the future will be from slower speeds and better integration among shipping modes. For example, freight could be carried by rail for the long part of a haul, with local pickup and delivery by truck. The widespread use of containers has removed many of the barriers to intermodal coordination.

Formidable barriers stand in the way of the implementation of energy-efficient changes.


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First, energy prices are artificially low because they do not account for environmental or energy-security externalities, such as air and water pollution, greenhouse gas emissions, and other environmental effects, and the costs of ensuring a stable supply of energy imports. A high price for energy, such as the prices in July for gasoline, natural gas, and coal, would justify the implementation of more efficiency measures. In addition, high prices tend to focus attention on efficiency and conservation, an important factor in potential savings.

Unfortunately, wildly fluctuating prices in wound up undermining the ability of producers and consumers to predict future prices and thus tended to also undermine arguments for investments in efficiency. Second, current tax policies encourage expenditures on energy rather than on greater efficiency.

Energy expenses are considered a current cost while expenditures for efficiency must be depreciated over time. Some states, such as California, have changed the compensation rules to motivate utilities to invest in efficiency rather than increasing energy use. A related issue has been that each utility has exclusive rights to sell its product in its service area, which has impeded the development of combined heat and power, microgrids, and other energy-efficient technologies.

Fourth, the decision about whether to invest in energy efficiency is often made by someone other than the person paying the energy bill. For example, a landlord may select appliances, but the tenant pays for electricity. Similarly, architects and builders, who are motivated to keep the price of a building down, may choose windows, insulation, and other materials with a focus on minimizing first costs rather than minimizing lifetime costs.

Fifth, architects, builders, workers, and customers all need more and better information.

Conclusion

If they do not understand the benefits of alternatives, they cannot make informed choices. Sixth, because energy expenditures are often a small part of the cost of occupying a residence or running a business, they often get little attention.

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Seventh, energy-efficient appliances must be mass produced to be competitive with less efficient appli-ances. This cannot happen, however, until a substantial number of customers express a desire for these products.

America's Energy Future: What the Government Misses in Its Energy Outlook and Why It Matters

This chicken-and-egg problem can keep products with important advances from entering the market. Finally, energy-efficient alternatives often have a higher initial price tag than less efficient products. If customers cannot afford the higher price or if they have to pay credit card interest rates, they are not likely to choose the energy-efficient alternative. Despite these barriers, substantial progress has been made in energy efficiency, as shown by the drop in en-ergy intensity of the U.

New energy-efficient technologies e.

Annual Energy Outlook 12222

Another driver has been intense competition. Sometimes, although energy savings for a plant may be small, they can make the difference between a facility that becomes profitable and one that cannot compete. Regulations, such as vehicle fuel-economy standards address energy efficiency directly.

Since environmental emissions generally consist of waste raw materials and fuel, regulations for air and water pollution discharges often encourage more efficient use of these inputs, including better energy efficiency. Appliance and building codes have been particularly important in improving energy efficiency see Figure 3 for refrigerators. In these cases, standards have overcome barriers to bringing more efficient, cheaper products to market.

However, regulation is a deceptively simple tool for change; in fact, it cannot work without the cooperation of both industry and consumers. A less heavy-handed innovation has been providing customers with information e. However, customers must also be educated about how to use this information. Pressure from educated consumers and investors has motivated many companies to improve their energy efficiency and the energy efficiency of their products.

Table 4 shows estimates of energy savings as a result of government policies. California and New York, which have aggressively promoted electricity savings, have held electricity use per capita nearly constant for more than two decades. As a result, their use per capita is 40 percent below the national average Figure 5.

America's Energy Future from the National Academies

The AEF Energy Efficiency Panel concluded that existing technology, or technologies that will be developed in the normal course of business, could save 30 percent of the energy that would have been used by under current policies and assumptions. About half of that efficiency increase could be achieved by The energy savings represent a savings in dollars as well as in energy. Finally, special attention must be paid to the design and purchase of long-lived assets, from buildings and automobiles to refrigerators and air conditioners.

Because of their long lifetimes, when an energy-inefficient product is purchased, the inefficiency cannot be eliminated until the product is replaced, which may take decades. Therefore, the energy efficiency of long-lived products should be improved, and purchasers should not only have the information they need to appreciate their energy efficiency, but should also have incentives to choose them over less efficient, often lower priced, competitors.

Annual Energy Outlook with Projections to Short-Term Energy Outlook. Energy conservation relies on people cutting back on activities that consume energy—by turning off lights or driving less or using appliances less often.

Energy efficiency harnesses technology to help avoid or reduce energy waste so that you can still turn on the lights, drive, or wash your clothes but use less energy doing so. It really all comes down to smarter energy use. Using less energy through efficiency measures is good for the economy and your wallet.

By reducing the amount of energy required for certain tasks, energy efficiency is also good for the planet. It can help to reduce air and water pollution caused by certain types of energy generation and avoid negative impacts on critical ecosystems—such as the obstacles a new hydroelectric dam could impose on migrating salmon. It can also relieve stress on the power grid. Boosting energy efficiency in buildings, vehicles, and appliances and equipment is an inexpensive, low-impact way to reduce climate pollution on a grand scale.

One extremely effective way to cut carbon dioxide CO 2 emissions is through a more efficient home. Widespread use of efficient appliances, electronics, equipment and lighting, along with better insulation and other weatherization, could cut million metric tons of carbon pollution a year by —equal to the electric power emissions produced by Texas, New York, Florida, Illinois, Virginia, and California in More than 2. In fact, about one in every six construction jobs in the country is connected to energy efficiency.

Energy-efficient appliances can save a U. People who live in the five least-efficient states Wyoming, North Dakota, Alabama, South Dakota, and Mississippi have seen their electric bills increase twice as much as those who live in the five most-efficient states California, Oregon, Connecticut, Vermont, and New York , according to rankings.

Low-income urban households have an energy burden—the proportion of income spent on energy—three times higher than that of higher-income households, partially due to lack of weatherization. Similarly, the energy burden on low-income rural families is nearly three times that of other rural households. Energy efficiency can also help people live healthier, longer lives.


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When power plants burn coal, oil, and natural gas, they release tiny particles into the air we breathe; these particles are linked to asthma, heart attacks, and lung cancer. Inside a home, inefficient ventilation and weatherization can also contribute to respiratory illnesses.

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EIA Releases Optimistic Report on U.S. Energy Future | woodcnivaborci.ga

Energy efficiency can even improve the comfort of everyday life, which may not be factored into benefit statistics. On a larger scale, energy efficiency can improve energy security, creating a more resilient power grid and making the country less dependent on foreign sources of fossil fuels. Ready to join the energy efficiency revolution?

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  5. Through a broad-based collaborative effort, the Wind Vision had four principal objectives: Document the current state of wind power in the United States and identify key technological accomplishments and societal benefits leading up to ; Explore the potential pathways for wind power to contribute to the future electricity needs of the nation, including objectives such as reduced carbon emissions, improved air quality, and reduced water use; Quantify costs, benefits, and other impacts associated with continued deployment and growth of U. Key Findings of the Wind Vision Report. Wind energy is available nationwide.

    Wind energy supports a strong domestic supply chain. Wind has the potential to support over , jobs in manufacturing, installation, maintenance, and supporting services by As wind generation agreements typically provide year fixed pricing, the electric utility sector is anticipated to be less sensitive to volatility in natural gas and coal fuel prices with more wind.

    Wind energy reduces air pollution emissions.