- American Civil War
- United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865
- Browse subject: United States -- History -- Civil War, | The Online Books Page
- Confederate war etchings, 1863.
The Democrats had nominated George B. McClellan, the former commander of the Army of the Potomac, as their candidate. The party made many missteps during the campaign, and for the first time ever, the North allowed soldiers to vote in the field. Sherman left Atlanta November 15 on his march to the sea. He reached Savannah by Christmas, leaving a mile wide swath of ashes, wrecked railroads and utter destruction behind him. Sherman detached George Thomas and the Army of the Cumberland to deal with him.
At the town of Franklin, Hood ordered frontal assaults that after five hours of intense fighting, left his army in tatters; five generals were dead. After an ice storm melted, Thomas came out of his works and finished the job of shattering the Confederate army. Its remnants withdrew to Tupelo, Mississippi. Stories that his men massacred Union soldiers, particularly members of the United States Colored Troops captured at Fort Pillow , a poorly designed Mississippi River fort north of Memphis, gained instant credence in the North, but two official inquiries were unable to reach a conclusion about what had actually happened.
At New Johnsonville, Tennessee, Forrest gained the distinction of commanding the only cavalry group ever to defeat gunboats, when they sunk or frightened crews into scuttling four ships. Farragut steamed into the Battle of Mobile Bay with 18 ships. Full speed ahead! By the end of , the Confederacy had nothing left but courage and tenacity. The smoke rising above Georgia and the thousands of bodies strung out from Nashville to Atlanta to Petersburg and the gates of Washington said there would be no military victory.
The South would fight on, no matter cost. The noose around the Confederacy was strangling it. The port city of Wilmington followed a month later. When they reached South Carolina, where the rebellion had begun, any bit of restraint they may have shown elsewhere was pitched aside. What remained of the Confederate forces, once more under the command of Joseph Johnston, was far too small to stop the juggernaut. Before leaving Richmond, the Confederates set fire to the town. On April 9, at Appomattox Courthouse , after discovering Federals had beaten him to a supply cache, he surrendered the Army of Northern Virginia to Grant.
Sherman extended even more generous terms than Grant had but endured the embarrassment of having to go back to Johnston with harsher conditions.
Lincoln died the next morning, the first American president to be assassinated. Booth was shot weeks later while trying to escape from a barn in Virginia.
American Civil War
All those captured who were believed to be his co-conspirators in the plot were hanged, including Mary Surratt, who owned the boarding house where the plotters met. One after another, the remaining Confederate forces surrendered. Only one Confederate was executed, Henry Wirtz, commander of the notorious prison camp at Andersonville.
Officially known as Fort Sumter, Andersonville was the largest prison camp in the south and was infamous for its ill treatment of Union prisoners who lacked adequate food and medicine. Southerners have long protested that the death rate in Northern prison camps was higher than that of Andersonville, and Wirtz should not have been punished for war crimes. Learn more about the Andersonville Prison Camp. There were numerous causes that led to the Civil War, many of which developing around the fact that the North was becoming more industrialized while the South remained largely agrarian.
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Some causes of the Civil War include:. There were over fifty major land battles and over ten thousand skirmishes, engagements and other military actions fought during the Civil War. Major Battles include:. Several hundred generals were commissioned during the American Civil War in the Union and Confederate armies. These men led the troops into the battles that would ultimately decide the outcome of the war. Prominent Civil War Generals include:. Weapons were the instruments of war in the Civil War and often played a critical role in deciding many battles.
Great advances came in the rifle, muskets, artillery, cannon and bullets, including the Minie Ball. Weapons used in the Civil War include:.
United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865
Women played an important role in the Civil War, playing the role of authors, as was the case of Harriet Beecher Stowe, abolitionists, civil rights activists, and nurses. Prominent Civil War women include:. Some prominent Civil War armies include:. Abraham Lincoln was the central figure of the Civil War. He led the nation through the troubled years of until his assassination in , just before the war ended.
The total number of casualties in the Civil War is not known precisely as records were not accurately kept during the era. Most sources put the total casualties on the Union and Confederate sides at between , and , It is noted not only for its military success but for the sheer destruction inflicted on the south. Delivered soon after the union victory at the battle of Antietam, it freed all slaves in confederate states. The proclamation proved a great motivator for the northern war effort and gave the war a higher purpose. The Gettysburg Address, written by Abraham Lincoln and delivered after the battle of Gettysburg at the battlefield, is one of the most famous speeches in American History.
The common soldier of the Civil War varied greatly. Most were farmers, aged 18 to Most were white protestants though African Americans made up roughly 10 percent of the Union army. Most earned 11 dollars per month. The uniforms for the soldiers of the Civil War are generalized between the blue for the Union and grey for Confederates, but there were many variations depending on location and time period.
The Confederacy is the name commonly given to the Confederate States of American which existed from throughout the Civil War. It was started when southern states seceded from the Union after the election of Abraham Lincoln. The Confederate President was Jefferson Davis.
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- United States -- History -- Civil War, 1861-1865.
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Slavery in America started in the early 17th Century with most slaves coming from Africa and being used in agriculture production. By the 18th Century, the Abolitionism movement began in the north and caused a divide between the northern and southern states. This divide came to the forefront with the election of Abraham Lincoln, who ran on an anti-slavery platform. There were many different flags used during the Civil War. On the Union side, there were both 33 star flags and 34 star flags after Kansas was admitted to the Union in On the Confederate side, there were three national flags as well as the more recognizable confederate battle flag.
Browse subject: United States -- History -- Civil War, | The Online Books Page
Additionally, each corps, divisions, brigades, regiments, and even individual companies carried their own unique flags. African Americans served many roles in the Civil War. Historians have suggested many reasons for the South's fearless stand against "overwhelming numbers and resources," to use General Lee's words. In this short study, author and historian Wade Hall adds one reason to the list: the humor of the Southerner -- as soldier and civilian -- during the war and the bleak days that followed it.
The South arose from the ashes of humiliation and defeat smiling -- though sometimes through tears. The Southerner's sense of humor helped him to fight a war he believed honorable and to accept the bitter defeat which ended it. Without the escape valve of humor, many a "rebel" would have succumbed to despair. The Southerner could smile wistfully as he looked back on a proud past and hopefully as he looked forward to an uncertain future.
He smiled because he read humorists like Bill Arp, who once wrote somewhat serio-comically that the South was "conquered but not convinced. After a survey of humor written during the war, Hall discusses the soldier, the Negro, the poor white, and the "folks at home" in wartime, as they are reflected in the postwar humor.
Sam R. Harriet Tubman.
Confederate war etchings, 1863.
Sarah Bradford. Shelby Foote. Slave Narratives: Florida. Library of Congress. Black American Classics: eleven books in a single file. Booker T. Mary Chesnut's Diary. Mary Boykin Chesnut. Citizen Tom Paine. Howard Fast. Joseph Alexander Altsheler. The Long Roll. Mary Johnston.
Company Aytch. Samuel R. Thomas Coleman Younger. Mark Twain's Civil War. Mark Twain. Martin Luther King, Jr. Day, , Memorial Issue. Sarah H. God Rest Ye Merry, Soldiers. James McIvor.